The museum is dedicated to the Legio II Patrhica created by the emperor Septimius Severus (Settimio Severo) in 196 A.D. to fight the Parthians, the ancient Persians. In 202 the headquarters of the Legio II was established in Albano. This choice represented an exception to the general rule that the legions were stationed at the borders of the empire, but this legion had special military skills and comprised Emperor Guard Personnel. The museum is located in the area where Caracalla, son and successor of Septimius Severus, built spas for the legionaries.

The museum begins with a series of faithful reconstructions of equipment and uniforms, the result of practical archaeology.