Castel Madama is on a hill above the valley of the River Aniene. This was the Empulum area, conquered by the Romans in the fourth century BC.
After the barbarian invasions and the Saracens, the inhabitants took refuge inside the fortified heights until the eleventh century and for years the castle was disputed between the Abbey of Subiaco and the Orsini family.
The fort was first destroyed and then rebuilt in the fourteenth century, with the name of Castrum Sancti Angeli, by Orsini. From 1504 to 1538 it was under the rule of the Medici, then of the Farnese and finally the Pallavicini.
The town owes its name to a stay by the daughter of Charles V, Margherita of Austria, called ‘Madam’.