Acquafondata (deep water) is so named because of the presence of a lake or a spring. It was born in the Middle Ages and around 1000 was donated to the Abbey of Montecassino and in the nineteenth century was part of the Bourbon Kingdom. The Napoleonic period saw the town be sacked several times.
After the unification of Italy there was a strong resistance in these areas at the hands of bandits whose stories are still told in the oral tradition.
Acquafondata was on the Gustav Line on the Cassino side and close to the Reinhard Line on the Molise side in World War II and was virtually completely destroyed by bombing. In memory of military action, French and Polish veterans erected monuments to the memory of their fallen.
Today there are few permanent citizens, but the town is recognised internationally for its Zampogna Festival – bringing back to life a traditional instrument with heritage possibly the same as the bagpipes.