Cicero returned here from exile and reorganized his library. Some of the most prominent Romans such as Mecenate built grandiose villas by the sea. The emperors Caligula and Nero were born here and Nero founded a colony and built a port whose ruins still exist.
The rebirth of Anzio took place at the end of the seventeenth century, when Pope Innocent XII rebuilt the harbour.
At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Anzio was an elegant seaside residence of aristocratic and bourgeois Roman families.
Anzio is internationally known for being the site of the landing of the Allies during World War II.