Roviano dominates access to the high Aniene Valley to the east of Rome and its name probably derives from the ancient Roman family of Rubri after the defeat of Equi.
The village was formed around the tenth century when the populations sought refuge in centres of fortified places on high ground. The village was formed concentrically around the castle, probably built by the Benedictine monks of Subiaco.
The fiefdom was then assigned to the various branches of the Colonna family, the Orsini, the Barberini and the Sciarra-Colonna. The Articles of Roviano is from 1287 and is one of the oldest of Lazio. The Rovianesi were often at odds with their own barons because of unauthorized modifications of the articles made by them.
In 1656 also Roviano was decimated by the plague that hit Italy. In less than a month it killed more than 400 people.