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Agosta is located on the Simbruini mountains, in the Aniene river valley north of Rome near the Agosta river source from which it probably got its name. This source is one of two that supplies the Aqua Marcia Acquaduct, about 80 km long and one of the main sources of supply of Rome built by Emperor Augustus.

Around 1000 a castle was built on the hill above the spring, and fish ponds for trout were created as well as two water mills for grinding grain.

In the seventeenth century the church of the Madonna del Passo was built for healing of the possessed.