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Cave is located at the foot of the Prenestini mountains on a hill surrounded by chestnut woods off the main Via Prenestina, one of the most important Roman roads.
The road connected Rome and the nearby important temple of Palestrina, with pre-Roman origins, and with the hinterland up to Abruzzo.
As always, along the major roads villas and settlements were created and remains of villas are in fact found almost everywhere in the countryside so much that many of the churches were built on fragments of earlier Roman buildings.
The history of the current Cave begins with the Barbarian invasions, when the population sought refuge on high ground within the castrum or castles, often under the direct control of some abbey. The first reference to a hamlet built around a fortress is found in a 971 document in which it is listed among the assets of the Abbey of Subiaco.
Its name probably derives from the quarries of pozzolan, an essential material to make the famous waterproof Roman concrete, with tuff.
The history revolves around the Cave of a fortress founded on a hill that is one of the oldest medieval castles of Lazio. The church of San Lorenzo has been recognized since 988 by the Bishop of Palestrina.
In 1296 Cave had its own Constitution and a period began when the local government was run by feudal lords linked to the church by alliances.
The statute of 4 articles defined rights and duties of citizens and of the Annibaldi Lords and is now preserved in the archives of the Colonna family.
In 1307 a second status of 116 articles was drafted as previously between the Annibaldi family and the population, and that is preserved in the archives of the Orsini.
With the election of Pope Martino V Colonna in 1420, whose family came from the nearby Genazzano, they feudal lords changed and Cave was assigned to his grandchildren and was exempt from paying certain taxes. The Colonna marked an important period for Cave to become a centre of interest.
In 1461 Pope Pio II Piccolomini passed to drink water from the Source of Santo Stefano, In 1462 the Colonna chose to have their own family grave in the San Lorenzo church and to restructure a third of the town statutes.
Then came the dark times and Cave was besieged and bombarded several times, until 1526 when Pope Clemente VII razed to the ground with shedding of salt by the mercenary captain Vitellozzo Vitelli because it was with the wrong ally in the war between the papacy and the empire.
In 1557 the town returned to serenity and  the “Peace of Cave” was signed that ended the War between Spain and the Papacy, and that brought back the Colonna family to the head of the Duchy of Paliano.
This was the Renaissance and also in Cave the atmosphere was positive, with building of new churches and palaces that lasted until the seventeenth century when it began a decline that lasted until the late nineteenth century when many middle-class families settled in this centre which also flourished thanks to the breeding of silkworms and tobacco products, chestnuts and walnuts.
Cave also lived a moment of glory in the Liberty era, visible in the numerous villas, and it was crossed by the railroad Rome-Frosinone-Fiuggi. Today Cave has an intense cultural activity, but no railroad.