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Probably the name is linked to that of the elder (sambuco) tree. The history of Sambuci is linked to that of the Subiaco Benedictine Abbey, as reported by a document of 858 that places it under the control of the abbot.

Between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the area was crossed by the armies of Frederick and in the XIII century construction of the castle was started by the Astalli who then transformed the castle in the seventeenth century into a stately building.

In 1943-44 the Nazis hid in the castle gardens.