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Palombara probably corresponds to the ancient city of Cameria or Regillum. In the eighth century the town was already called Palumba or Palumbus, for the presence of dovecotes and breeding of pigeons.

A first castle was built when the population were seeking protection from Barbarian incursions with the protection of the Abbey of Farfa first and then San Giovanni in Argentella. Probably in the area there was a Saracen base as evidenced by the cult of St. Blaise, patron of populations threatened by infidels. The fiefdom was then ruled by Ottaviani, of Lombard descent, with a degree of autonomy from the Holy See, to the extent of being called “reguli” (petty kings). In the thirteenth century the estate passed to the Savelli family who brought prestige and notoriety: Popes, anti-popes and emperors, including Henry IV and Frederick Barbarossa, were guests at the Castle.

Palombara was largely destroyed in 1556 during the war between Pope Paul IV, an ally of the French, and the Spanish Duke of Alba. In the seventeenth century the estate passed to the Borghese. In 1870 Palombara Sabina became a municipality.