Roman records reveal how well this Sabina area was known since antiquity, but the current village is medieval, dating from the twelfth century. The inhabitants of the town came from the nearby Capofarfa who left their village and founded Poggio San Lorenzo on a fortified hill.
The first news of this settlement of Poggio San Lorenzo dates back to 1198, when Pope Innocent III recognized it in the possessions of the Abbey of Farfa. The list was the castle of Poggio San Lorenzo and its church dedicated to San Lorenzo.
It was under the rule of the Abbey of Farfa from the eighth century and then was under the rule of different families like the Orsini, the Barberini, the Farnese and the Lante della Rovere.
The name comes from ‘poggio’ meaning “hill” and San Lorenzo is the name of the Saint Patron.
According to tradition, the name of Poggio San Lorenzo was given after the passage of Sant’Emidio (IV century AD) who preached the martyrdom of San Lorenzo. This is why the people decided to change the old name of Vicus Nervae, which was given in honour of the Emperor Nerva.